Wawoua Martine, Ndom ebene Christian David, Benjamin Alexandre Nkoum, Ganava Maurice
Introduction:Antenatal care has been recognized to contribute to the reduction of maternal and neonatal mortality. However, it must be of good quality, on time and in sufficient numbers. Globally, in Africa and in Cameroon, women arrive late for antenatal care. The objective of our study was to identify and analyze the determinants of late attendance at antenatal care services in the Ngaoundere urban health district.
Methods:Our study took place from the 20th of March to the 30th of November 2021. It enrolled 717 pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in health facilities in the Ngaoudere urban health district. We conducted a descriptive and analytical study. Socio-demographic, socio-cultural, economic and institutional data were collected using CSPRO software and then exported for compilation and analysis using SPSS software. Group comparison was calculated with the chi-square with significance level (P<0.05). SPAD software was used to identify the determinants of women's late attendance at antenatal clinics.
Results: In general, women who came late (from the second trimester onwards during ANCs were mostly) unmarried (p ≈ 0.00) and had at most primary education, Christian religion (p= 0.015), civil servant, or trader. They were not satisfied with the amount of ANC services and did not want the pregnancy (p=0.03). They thought that complications do not occur during the first three months of the pregnancy and the initiative to go to ANC services came from their partner (p ≈ 0.00). In addition, the spouse's level of education, being over 40 years of age, multiparity and low level of knowledge about ANC (p ≈ 0.00) increase the probability of late ANC visits.
Conclusion: Finally, the identification of the main determinants of this delay prompts the promotion of targeted strategies, with a view to influencing the behaviour and attitudes of pregnant women, the reinforcement of awareness-raising sessions both in the community and in the media, and above all the strengthening of the capacities of the providers in charge of this ANC
Asad Ali Farah
Scabies is known to be a highly contagious skin infection caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis which burrow into the skin. Scabies is one of the three most common skin diseases that always affect children besides pyoderma and tinea. In addition, scabies are more often seen in crowded district with low standard of living and unhygienic condition. Scabies can spread through direct or indirect skin contact. We presented a 11 year old girl with chief complaint of intense body itchiness between the fingers, wrist, palm, armpit, back and chest. The general examination was within normal limits with optimal vital measures. On dermatological examination, found erythematous papules, round shaped with a well defined border, discrete presentation and distributed bilaterally. Microscopic examination was not done as 3 over 4 cardinal signs were found in this patient to establish the diagnosis. The patient was prescribed with Scabimite lotion to apply once a day and Interhistin tablets two times a day. For non- pharmacological treatment, patient was advised to take care of her personal and surrounding hygiene. Her family members were also advised to undergo the same medication as a preventive measure. The prognosis was good.
Ganava Maurice, Ndom Ebène Christian david, Kidi Menta Marius, Wawoua Martine
Introduction: Cameroon is a country where maternal mortality continues to grow in recent decades from 511 ‰ live births in 1998 to 782 ‰ live births in 2011. Family planning can prevent at least 25 % of these deaths by training couples and individuals on how to space or limit births, avoid unwanted and high-risk pregnancies and abortions. However its utilization rate is low. If at the national level, 24 % of women of childbearing age use it, in the Far North, the most populous region of the country, 3.7 % of women use it.Objective: This study aimed to describe the perception of family planning by the people of the Mokolo Health District.Methodology: A KAP (Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices) and a mixed (quantitative and qualitative) descriptive and analytical study were conducted in Mokolo Health District located in the Far North region from October 2014 to April 2015. Quota sampling was done. Data were collected through questionnaire and interview. The analysis of quantitative data was performed using the software Epi-Info version 3.5.4 and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. Qualitative data were collected and systematically transcribed. The content analysis was carried out on the basis of the matrix of the dimensions and colour code. Verbal data from direct observation were returned per verbatim.Results: There were 240 subjects recruited aged between 15 and 49 years with an age average of 29.78 ± 8.63 years. More than half of the participants (62.60%) were couples (married and cohabiting). Most participants (77.10%) had more than five children and almost half (41.70%) of them had the desire to space out or limit births.The majority of subjects studied (80.42 %) were able to list at least one method of contraception, but they had insufficient or poor knowledge (71.20 %) on family planning. Their level of knowledge was illustrated for instance by the following verbatim: « le planning familial c’est, c’est contre les grossesses précoces » (Under educated woman).Although most of the respondents (86.30 %) believed that family planning was important, 13.70 % said the opposite. For them, family planning was a source of social discrimination (45.50 %), divorce / separation (36.40 %). The majority of the subjects considered family planning for married people and thought that: « si non tu es une fille, ou bien une fille chez ton papa, tu vas faire le planning familial avec qui? » (Educated women). Some interviewees felt that family planning promoted prostitution (8.30 %) and could be used for abortion (6.70 %). Also, half of the participants (52.90 %) stated that contraceptive methods impacted the health of the woman: « quand on avale un produit, de toutes les manières il a un effet sur l’organisme » (Educated man). Following religious values, 48.10 % of muslins wrongly declared that, Islam was against any method of contraception. Most traditional practices of contraception stated in the studied population were separated after delivery (57.60 %), traditional potions (26.10 %), «the reversal of the woman’s belly » (12.10 %), and« the blacksmith hits the back of the woman » (7.90 %).The majority of the studied population (73.30%) did not practice family planning. The reasons given for this were fear of side effects (38.10%), religious (33.00%) and traditional (17.00%) beliefs, refusal of spouses (16.50%). %) illustrated as follows « ils veulent beaucoup des héritiers, (…), au village surtout les enfants c’est une grande richesse, quand tu as beaucoup d’enfants, on te respecte au village » (Educated woman), « ils sont contre l’espacement, le planning familial, sinon ils ont beaucoup des femmes à la maison ; c’est pour pondre comme les poulets » (Educated woman), « ici chez nous, tant que tu as l’argent, il faut accoucher beaucoup d’enfants en pagaille, tu n’as pas tu t’abstiens, c’est ça le planning sauvage qui est appliqué ici » (Educated young man). In ¼ of cases among those who practiced family planning, man was the decision maker. For others «c’est d’abord la femme et puis elle s’entend avec son mari, s’il refuse tu prends en cachette » (Under educated woman).Conclusion: Despite the real need to space out and limit births, the population of the Mokolo Health District has a low level of skills in family planning. Approximate knowledge of modern contraceptive methods maintains wrong attitudes and promoting the use of traditional methods at the unproven efficacy.
Ndom Ebène Christian david, Atanga D.Funwie, Sando zachary, Kidi Menta Marius, Ganava Maurice
Breast cancer is the first most common cancer in women worldwide, with global estimates one million new cases and nearly 584,000 cases in developed countries, the remainder in developing countries. Its prevalence is estimated at 29,4% . Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Cameroonian women. It is a preventable disease, it can be prevented through early detection AES, ECS regular mammography are effective methods for the control of breast cancer in countries with limited resources. However, the detection of suspicious signs requires knowledge of the disease end the general community, women in particular, can become aware and develop attitudes to act on modifiable factors, but also to practice cancer screening within regular way.The overall objective of the study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of women in the health district Tokombéré amongst breast cancer . Materials and MethodsWe
conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study on a sample of 405 women during one month . Required permissions have been obtained from the chief medical officer of the district. The purpose and procedures of the study were explained to women, French and Foufouldé. We included in our study, all women aged 20-70 years who have given their informed consent. We excluded all patients or women with a history of breast cancer. Scripted questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics , reproductive history, prior knowledge about breast cancer , its causes , risk factors , prevention , attitudes and practices regarding disease . Participants were recruited in 40 districts Tokombéré. Based on knowledge, attitudes and practices of participating prior to the breast cancer, we had knowledge 2 groups : group good knowledge , bad knowledge group . The attitude 2 groups : group good attitude, bad attitude group . Practice 2 groups : group
practice positive , negative practice group. Women of good knowledge group were conscious and say that poor knowledge were called ignorant. The data entry was done with the CS PRO 4.0 then export to SPSS or has been analyzing data software. Proportions were compared using the chi – square test, differences were considered statistically significant if p was less than 0.05. ResultsThe knowledge on the breast cancer was poor, the attitude was good has the majority of the participants, consistent of a practice judged very weak. The results showed that on the 405 interrogated women, only 22.5% had a good previous knowledge on the breast cancer against 77.5% that had a bad knowledge and ill-informed. The ignorant women tended to be housewives with no level of instruction. The big majority of the women (60%) showed a good attitude opposite the breast cancer. Otherwise we noted a weak proportion on the knowledge (22.5%) of the women, who also resulted in a weak proportion in practice (10%). Only a minority of which 16 on 405(3.5%) had undergone a preventive tracking test. The most common reasons by the absence of tracking were due to the lack of information, consistent by the conviction that they were in good health. The religion, the school level, the profession was statistically significant to the knowledge, attitude and the practice (P were less than 0.05). The gynécoobstetric antecedent was statistically significant to the attitude (P were less than 0.05). ConclusionThis study found that there was insufficient knowledge about breast cancer and malpractice screening of precancerous lesions of the breast in women who live Tokombéré. Attitude of women were usually very positive since most of of them showed a good
attitude amongst this disease. this attitude , however, did not improve the practice and it could have been brought by the obstacles were lack of knowledge, perception of the disease.
Lawson Ulrich Landry, Ndom Ebène Christian david, Atanga D.Funwie, Kidi Menta Marius
Introduction: prescribing is the most common and most important medical act. By prescribing, the physician concretizes his therapeutic decisions within the framework of a fundamental principle, recognized by the law (Code of public health. Article R.4127-8), that of the freedom of prescription, principle on which rests the independence essential to the medical practice. Medicines are a strategic product because of their economic and industrial importance. The issues related to its prescription are twofold: the pharmacovigilance and public health aspects in relation to the proper use of the drug and serious adverse effects. However, generic drugs still do not seem to have the support of the population and the medical profession. Confidence in generic drugs is waning as a result of media scandals. In order to address concerns about bioequivalence and safety, public authorities have conducted numerous clinical studies and are trying to provide accurate answers. With this in mind, we set out to analyze the factors associated with non-prescription of generic drugs by health care personnel in the Yagoua health district, Far North Region/Cameroon.Materials and Methods: We conducted a quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical study. Participants in our study were recruited during the period November 2021 to February 2022 in twenty health facilities in the Yagoua health district. The consecutive exhaustive sample consisted of 124 health care personnel. Data were collected using a pre-tested questionnaire. It included 29 open and closed questions. Data processing was done with SPSS software version 20.0.0, the correlation between variables was evaluated using the Chi-square test with a significance level of 5%.Results: We recruited 124 caregivers. Men were the most represented (N=91; 73.38%), with a sex ratio of 2.75. Our sample consisted of 01 specialist physician (obstetrical gynecology), 22 general practitioners, 69 state-registered nurses, 06 specialist nurses (04 in anesthesia-intensive care, 02 in mental health), 10 midwives and 16 midwives. The factors associated with non-prescription of generic drugs were respectively: gender was the only variable associated with non-prescription of generic drugs (p=0.015), for general knowledge of the nursing staff. For the clinical factors, the variables associated with non-prescription of generic drugs by the nursing staff were respectively the number of years of experience and the profession of the nursing staff (p=0.03). For socio-economic factors, the variables associated with non-prescription of generic drugs were respectively gender, age and number of years of experience (p=0.0018). Finally, for the attitudes and practices of the nursing staff, the variables associated with non-prescription of generic drugs were respectively gender, age and number of years of experience (p=0.014).Conclusion: Health care staff prescribed specialty/generic brand name drugs more readily than essential generics, despite some difficulties such as not prescribing in INN. However, health care workers have confidence in generics, but are still not committed to substitution for economic reasons and are limited by certain factors. Thus, this study suggests improving access to information on generic drugs for health care personnel in the Yagoua health district, making it available, and reflecting on the new guidelines on generics at both national and peripheral levels.
Bashir Ma’alim Mahamud, Atanga Desmond Funwie
Introduction: Skin creams that have bleaching properties and that improve complexion are much sought after by women in Somalia. Lightening agents continue to dominate the cosmetic marketing industry in Somalia and the world over. The practice of skin lightening is associated with profound negative impacts on well-being and adverse effects on the skin. In this paper, we aimed at highlighting the complications of this much sought-after practice and open up discussions on this topic for the Dermatologists in the country to take the lead in guiding on use and protecting the public from the side effects of Skin Lightening products.
Conclusion: There is a clear danger of abuse and use of unregulated Skin Lightening Products (SLPs) in Somalia. The authorities in Somalia are constrained in regulation, control, and verifying the compounds in Skin lightening products.
Atangana Bertin, Mvogo Guy, SAH Victorien, Atangana Awoa, Kenne Lontsi, Mafon T Ida Larissa, Nyamban Charles N, Ndjengue Nson Louis S, AchidI Ndanji
Urinary tract infections are common in women, and even more so in pregnant women, not only because of the anatomical situation of their urinary tract, but also because of the anatomical and hormonal changes that occur with fetal growth. Urinary tract infections in pregnant women are associated with maternal-fetal morbidities such as hypertension, premature births, pre-eclampsia and low birth weight. The objective of our study was to determine both the frequency of germs isolated in the urine of pregnant women and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective study over a six-month period from December 01er 2021 to May 31 2022 in the prenatal consultation services and clinical biology laboratory of the Ad- lucem Hospital in Banka-Bafang (West Cameroon). The urine was processed according to the standards of the microbiology reference system. At the same time, spreads were made to realize the fresh state between slides and slides, and a urine strip with 11 parameters was made. Statistics was made by Epi info 7 and p 0, 05 was significant. A total of 210 pregnant women were enrolled in this study respecting our inclusion
criteria. The most represented age group was 20-25 with a mean age of 29 ± 5 years. Our population was composed mostly of young people, all of whom were in school, most of whom, 41%, were housewives and 16% were students. The prevalence of urinary tract
infections was 70.47%, and the most isolated germ was E. coli (39%). E. coli and Klebsiella were highly resistant to penicillin G and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. Proteus strains showed resistance to Penicillin G (50%), Cefotaxime (50%). S.aureus showed good sensitivity to Lincomycin (100%), Ceftriaxone (79.41%), Cefotaxime (88.23%) and Gentamicin (94.11%). A good sensitivity of Candida albicans to the tested antifungals was observed. In our study, urinary tract infection in pregnant women is asymptomatic in 49.32% and should be carefully investigated in the second trimester of pregnancy. Our study showed a very high prevalence rate of isolated germs at this stage of pregnancy, main enterobacteria with variable sensitivity to antibiotics.
Sah Victorien, Atangana Bertin, Ndjengue Nson Louis ,Mvogo Guy,Fyinyang Jacques
Background: Alcohol abuse is classified by the WHO as the third greatest risk of death or disability in the world  and is responsible for 9% of traffic accidents , due to the high level of motorization in the regions and the relatively easy availability of alcoholic beverages. Unfortunately, this harmful consequence does not only involve the consumer, but also his environment. Thus, in order to prevent the risks of accidents due to acute alcohol intoxication, we set ourselves the objective in this study to determine the frequency of acute alcohol intoxication in subjects frequenting snack bars and night clubs.
Methods: The equipment used was an ethylometer: the Alcometer CA3000, in which, the participants at the exit of the collection sites blew and the values of alcohol level were recorded from the expired air. The time of leaving the collection sites and the means of transport of the participants were also recorded.
Results: 171 male and female motorcyclists, car drivers and pedestrians with an average age of 29.56 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; the average BAC was 2.80 ±3.31g/L; with a prevalence of acute intoxication of 65.50%; the 25-30 age group had the highest level of intoxication (49.54% ≥ 0.5g/L) and young men had a level of intoxication 0.14 times higher than females; furthermore, 66.66% of motorists had a blood alcohol level ≥ 0.5g/L at the time of driving, most often between 10 pm and 1 am; as did 65.60% of pedestrians.
Conclusion: Young men in the city of Douala, aged between 25 and 30 years, very often leave snack bars and/or nightclubs between 10 pm and 1 am in a state of acute alcoholic intoxication; Some of them, despite their state of inebriation take the wheel at the exit of these places, and may be likely to endanger their lives and those of their respective entourage.
Sah Victorien,Mbipeh Emmanuel, Atangana Bertin, Ndjengue Nson Louis ,Mvogo Guy,Fyinyang Jacques,Adiogo Dieudonné
Background We evaluated the prevalence of alcoholism among patients admitted to the emergency department of the Yaoundé Emergency Center. We took into account the sociodemographic data and the blood alcohol levels of all patients admitted,
without distinction of the reason for admission.
Methods This descriptive study took place in the emergency unit of the Yaoundé Emergency Centre, the largest in the city. The patients who were admitted, conscious and voluntary, were subjected to a brief questionnaire establishing sex, age, marital status and profession; then they blew each one in the ethyl meter (Alco meter CA 3000), through a single-use mouthpiece. The BAC value displayed on the meter was immediately recorded.
Results 157 male and female patients, with an average age of 40.37 ± 16.32, took part in the study; the average BAC was around 0.169 ± 0.136 (~0.46g/L), and the prevalence of alcoholism was 69.43%; young men, mostly truck drivers, in the 26 to 35 age group had the highest BAC, contributing strongly to the prevalence of acute alcohol intoxication.
Conclusion: 69.43% of the patients in the CURY are victims of conditions related to alcohol abuse, and the most concerned are vehicle drivers. We have worked on conscious people, but the effects of alcohol go beyond these people, as cases of death unfortunately occur very often.
Mvogo Guy.D, Sah Victorien, Atangana Bertin M, Agaya Chrismaine, Tchiloumbou Anne, Benjakhoukh Basma, Pambou Tat, Ndjengue Nson Louis
A diagnostic test is a tool that uses a technique or method based on a proven scientific principle and may or may not use equipment or materials to make a diagnosis of a disease. It is the starting point for the proper management of an infectious or non-
infectious disease. This document is based on national, continental and international consensus on screening and diagnosis of hepatitis C. Articles from researchers in institutes and hospitals were also used. The selected papers are the most recent ones
dealing with screening and diagnosis of hepatitis C. Whether in Cameroon or worldwide, the biological tests used in the screening and diagnostic algorithms for hepatitis C (HCV) include all the tests for anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA detection. International consensus and strategies recommend screening with HCV EIA tests. However, in low- and middle-income countries such as Cameroon, rapid tests for
hepatitis C antibodies are used. Cameroon, like other low and middle income countries in the world, should adopt algorithms that are adapted to their socio-economic context while ensuring the quality of the tests used.
Mvogo Guy., Ayiwouo jules B, Ndjengue Nson Louis S, Sah Victorien, Bouassa Natacha, Ndombi Dede Daniella, Juliette Atatama, Luthi Alexandra, Voubou Anselme, Njoya M Seidou, Atangana Bertin M
In Cameroon, according to our research, there are about ten brands of RDTs marketed. Some brands of RDTs are more common in some areas than others. Do all these marketed tests have proven effectiveness? Does it offer sufficient sensitivity to be used as a screening test? In a bid to address these concerns we conducted an evaluative study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of two tests marketed and used in Sangmélima, a town in the Southern region of Cameroon. The rapid tests ONE STEP RAPID TEST (HIGHTOP©) and HVC Rapid Test (JUSCHECK©) were evaluated using the HCV AB ELISA TEST KIT (HIGHTOP©), considered as standard. The serum of 81 patients made it possible to calculate the sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative (NPV) of the two tests. The score of the operationality criteria made it possible to know whether the tests were appropriate. The ONE STEP RAPID TEST (HIGHOP©) showed sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV equal to 91.67%, 97.10%, 98.53% and 84.62% respectively. The HCV Rapid Test (JUSCHECK©) presented a sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV respectively equal to 100%, 91.30%, 100% and 66.67%. Although in our study only the HVC Rapid Test (JUSCHECK©) had a sensitivity greater than 99%, the HVC Rapid Test (JUSCHECK©) and ONE STEP RAPID TEST (HIGHOP©) are, according to the criteria of operationality, respectively very appropriate and appropriate tests for the screening of viral hepatitis C.
Mvogo Guy.D, Ayiwouo jules, Ndjengue Nson Louis ,Sah Victorien,Bouassa Natach, Ndombi Dede Daniella, Juliette Atatama, Luthi Alexandra,Voubou Anselme, Njoya M Seidou, Atangana Bertin
Rapid screening tests (RDTs) for infections are proliferating in Africa. In Cameroon, there are about ten viral hepatitis C (HVC) RDTs. Among these tests, some like SD BIOLINE HCV are prequalified by the WHO and others are not, like HCV Rapid Test Strip (DiaSpot). The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the performance of SD BIOLINE HCV and HCV Rapid Test Strip (DiaSpot). 50 samples were selected at the Douala military hospital. Among these samples, 22 were positive and 28 were negative in the anti-HCV ELISA test (AUTOBIO DIAGNOSTICS CO., LTD). SD BIOLINE HCV and HCV Rapid Test Strip (DiaSpot) were used to search for HCV antibodies in the serum of 50 patients. For each RDT, the sensitivity, specificity, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) were calculated. HCV Rapid Test Strip (DiaSpot) showed sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV equal to 100%, 82.14%, 100% and 81.48% respectively. And SD BIOLINE HCV presented 100% value for sensitivity, specificity, NPV and PPV. The reproducibility of SD BIOLINE HCV on 15 patients was 100%.
Conclusion: According to our study, the SD BIOLINE HCV and HCV Rapid Test Strip TDRs (DiaSpot) exhibit excellent sensitivities. According to the operational criteria, although SD BIOLINE HCV is superior, both RDTs are appropriate for screening for viral hepatitis.
Moses Lopuka, Atanga Desmond Funwie
Introduction: Medical devices play a vital role in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and disease, as well as patient rehabilitation. However, a sustainable maintenance of medical devices in gov-ernment health facilities in the sub-Saharan Africa is still in infancy. In addition, according to the World Health Organisation – it projects that over 50% of medical devices in Low-and-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) are non-functional, not correctly used, and maintained due to various reasons such as lack of ap-propriate human resource, especially Biomedical Engineers/Technicians. This study aims to assess the impact of Biomedical Engineers/Technicians on the functional status of medical devices in government hospitals in Uganda.
Methods: The study utilised a descriptive survey form. A total of 37 hospitals were observed from the four major regions of Uganda. The hospitals were divided as, where a Biomedical Engineer/Technician is em-ployed and where a Biomedical Engineer/Technician is not employed. 127 participants consented to the study and the medical device status was assessed using the A-F scale recommended by the Ministry of Health.
Results: A majority of the hospitals observed were located in the Eastern region (42.7%) followed by Central region (29%). Hospitals with a Biomedical Engineer/Technician represented 79.5% whereas the remaining 20.5% represented without a Biomedical Engineer/Technician. Furthermore, it was observed that hospitals with a Biomedical Engineer/Technician had the highest number of functional medical devices compared to without a Biomedical Engineer/Technician.
Conclusion: Employing a Biomedical Engineer/Technician reduces the number of non-functional medical devices in the hospital. This has been corroborated by other studies as well. Therefore, it is recommended to employ many Biomedical Engineers/Technicians in the government hospitals to improve health service de-livery.