Abdiwali Ahmed Hirey,Atanga Desmond Funwie
The last three decades of armed conflicts, lack of functioning government, economic collapse, and disintegration of the health system and other public services – together with recurrent droughts and famines, have turned Somalia into one of the world’s most difficult environments for survival.
The under-five mortality in Somalia is estimated at 200 deaths per 1,000 live births, which is one of the highest in the world. Diarrhea is the main killer; contributing to 20-25 per cent of all under-five mortality. The major objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with diarrhoeal diseases among children under five years old in Mogadishu-Somalia.
The questionnaire of the study focused on three key areas of assessment in order to understand how they influence the occurrence of diarrhea in the under-five children: (a) demographic and socioeconomic (b) Information of the prevalence (c) the environmental factors and (d) Health system factors. The study used descriptive cross-sectional design, with a sample of 52 parents and caregivers of children under the age of five. Researcher administered structured questionnaires were used to collect data during 4th to 15th December 2021, after agreed informed consent. Data was analyzed using the MS Excel spreadsheet package and the quantitative analysis was carried out. Thereafter, the researcher made an interpretation of the frequency tables and figures and accordingly made a summary of findings, conclusions and recommendations. Seventy three percent of households reported having children who suffered from diarrhea in the past 2 weeks preceding the study. Diarrhea was also the most common disease reported by mothers/care givers among under-five children in the households, affecting 41%of the children. Diarrheal disease the occurrence was highest among children of mothers who did not attend formal education school, children living in households provided water by Private Operators and among children whose main source of water was Piped water diarrhea (79%). Most parents in the household delayed taking their ill children to hospital opting to first caregivers preferred to purchase drugs from pharmacy wherever a child had diarrhea due to lack of money for consultation fees and transportation to the health facility and traditional medicines resulting in many cases of admissions at the health facilities. From the study findings it can be concluded that diarrhea was the most prevalent disease among under-fives and is more likely to occur among children whose mothers had no education, and who lived in household whose main source of drinking water was Piped water, supplied by Private Operators. In addition, the study concluded that other environmental factors had no association with diarrhea occurrence.
Mohamed Abdi Hashi, Atanga Desmond Funwie
The objective of this study is to assess contemporary efforts and peacekeeping missions and their challenges in Somalia. And to find out the relationship presence of African Union forces in Somalia and Alshabaab fighting.
In this study, the researcher uses a study design known as cross-sectional study design. The target study populations that were involved as the major source of the primary data were those men who have been in government employees 1260. Then, the sample size approximately was 90 respondents in Somalia. For the accessible primary data
source, Convenience non-probability sampling technique was used. In finding, the proportion of females from the total sample was less when compared to the proportion of the males. The majority of respondents were between 60-70 years of age.
The most important social structure in Somali society is the clan. It is the single most important element that has historically defined the identity and social relations of Somalis for centuries. The solution to the problem should be that the Neighboring countries should withdraw from Somalia and stay away from Somalia and its borders. And Somalia elders and politician has put aside all their differences and self-interest and they should forward the peace process which lasts ever.
Galad Ahmed Mohamed
Background of study the government has formulated policies to ensure women have access to skilled birth attendants at delivery but home delivery and subsequent maternal mortality remain disturbingly high. The national maternal mortality rate for Kenya was 441 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2005 (KEMRI/CDC, 2005) but fluctuations in the trend were observed as the national maternal mortality rate rose to 530 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2008 then dropped to 490 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2009 (USAID,
2009; UNICEF, 2010). In addition, there are variations in maternal mortality across regions; in Busia District of Western Kenya, maternal mortality is estimated to be 680 per 100,000 live births (AMREF, 2011), in Korogocho and Viwandani slum areas in Nairobi the MMR was reported to be 706 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (Ziraba et al. 2009), and in North Eastern Province of Kenya where Garissa District is located MMR stands at 1000 deaths per 100,000 live births (USAID, 2009; MOH, 2009). The reasons for these variations are mainly attributable to variations in income, education level, availability/accessibility, and use of maternity services in the respective regions (GoK, 2009). Globally, Home delivery is common across communities in the world however; it is associated with a high incidence of maternal and perinatal mortality (WHO, 2009). Half a million women die each year from causes related to pregnancy and childbirth; 99% of these are in developing countries (UNICEF, 2008). For example, in Uganda, less than
40% of deliveries take place in a health facility; TBAs handle 15%, relatives 35%, and 12% are unassisted (MOH & Population Council, 2004). Differences for these variations can be attributed to (i) socio-cultural factors, (ii) perceived benefit/need of skilled attendance,
(iii) economic accessibility and (iv) physical accessibility (Sabine & Campbell, 2009. About 83% of women from North Eastern Province give birth at home (KDHS, 2009). Home deliveries contribute immensely to a high rate of infant and maternal mortality, tears (Vesico-Vaginal Fistula, Recto-Vaginal Fistula), sepsis, post-partum hemorrhage, and fetal asphyxia (MOH, 2009). Similarly, Garissa District health indicators are of concern, they are the lowest nationally; MMR in the District is 1000/100,000 live births compared to 441/100,000 nationally, the infant mortality rate (IMR) is 63/1000 compared to 52/1000 nationally, maternal and child immunization coverage is 57% compared to 90% nationally (KDHS, 2009; USAID, 2009; MOH, 2009). Home delivery-related morbidity due to anemia, obstructed labor, obstetric fistula, and hemorrhage accounts for the high number of hospital admissions in Garissa District (MOH, 2006). The KDHS, 2009 reported higher levels of antenatal use (69.5%) and low levels of hospital delivery (17%) in Garissa District though the report did not specify the number of ANC visits made per woman; hence this research investigated the cause of this disparity. In addition, women’s perception of the accessibility, cost, and quality of hospital services they received was assessed. The extensive level of gender inequality, maternal age, education, economic coupled with service-related factors associated with the choice of place of child delivery was investigated. These together with the identification of the existing opportunities for community involvement in reproductive health will help to address many maternal health challenges in Kenya. It is anticipated that the findings from this study will be used to develop recommendations for interventions aimed at increasing women’s utilization of health services
for delivery. Therefore, this study is going to find out Factors influencing to choice of delivery among mothers at Hiran Regional Hospital in Beletwein- Hiran-Somalia. Research Design a descriptive case study approach was used in order to determine and report about the Study on factors influencing to choice of delivery among mothers at Hiran Regional Hospital in Beletwein-Hiran- Somalia.
Finding the According to Respondents Age the majority of the respondents 75 (75%) were between 23-35 years, 15(15%) were above 36 years old, while the remaining 10(10%) were between 18-22. According to Respondent’s Marital Status, the majority of respondents 60(60%) were married, while only 40(40%) were divorced. According to Respondents’ Marital Status, the majority of respondents 80(80%) were illiteracy, 10(10%) were primary, 5(5%) were secondary, 5(10%) were universal level.
Mohamed Bashir Mohamed, Atanga Desmond Funwie
The titles of this study was focused on the knowledge, attitude and practice towards infection control among health care provider at Benadir & Osman Fiqi hospitals in Somalia. The general estimate found that more than 2.5 million HAI cases occur in developed and developing countries each year, with about 90% of infections occurring in a resource-limited environment. Specific objectives were: To find out knowledge towards infection control among health care provider at Benadir & Osman Fiqi hospitals in Somalia, To identify attitude towards infection control among health care provider & To determine practice towards infection control among health care provider.
The study used cross-sectional as research design, while the population of the study was health care provider who were working at Benadir & Fiqi Hospital. Sample size was 70, sampling technique used purposive which mainly focused judgmental selection of the participants, Questionnaire & checklist was used as primary data collection tool while Satirical packages for Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) used as data analyzer tool which used quantitative research as major software. Socio-demographic factors related infection control among health care provider like age gender and their educational level shows that most of the study respondents who work were male in age above 43 years and according knowledge towards infection control among health care provider the most of participants were said that they didn’t have awareness of HCAIs in the hospital and remaining were replied that they did.
1. Researcher should recommend increasing awareness of this disease much more among health workers in order to maximize for the knowledge about HCAIs.
2. Researcher Should recommend In order to eradicate the overcrowd of any environmental obstacles facing and can help the spread of HCAIs among population.
Alas Hassan Mohamed, Atanga Desmond Funwie
Background – Coronavirus disease, simply known as the COVID-19 is a pandemic disease which has changed life across the world (Michael Pritsch et al, 2021). Despite the fragile and weak health system in the country, Somalia has struggled to control and effectively respond to COVID-19 outbreak on its own. Since the first laboratory confirmed case reported on 16 March, cases have been reported and confirmed in remote areas, confirming that the virus is circulating widely in the whole country. Therefore, immediate and purposeful action to save lives and livelihoods should be place. extending the social awareness and protection towards universal health coverage and income support for those most affected are necessary and that is the reason research is carried out.
Objective – The main objective of the research was to find out the factors contributing to Corona virus (COVID-19) incidence among living in Mogadishu, Somalia. Methodology – The study design will be observational – descriptive cross sectional study design. A structured questionnaire will be used for collecting the primary data from the
target respondents. The target population of the research was the residents of Mogadishu city. Non-probability convenient sampling technique was used for selecting the study sample from the target population. A sample of 150 respondents were questioned for collecting the primary data of the research.
Findings – The research findings reported that all respondents are always attending at public gathering such as markets, mosques. Respondent’s knowledge on covid was quite good but not sufficient for covid prevention and control. The respondent’s adherence to preventive measures against covid-19 was as supposed indicating that
67% of them use public vehicles for transportation which is another challenge for limiting the spread of the disease. Only 33% of respondents always use facemasks, while 80% of the respondents always wash their hands. Another alarming point is that 40% of respondents confirmed they greet other people by handshake which may
further circulate the corona virus in the community.
Bashir Ma’alim Mohamud, Atanga Desmond Funwie
Public health emergency is a sudden and usually unforeseen event that must be countered immediately to minimize the consequences. It is important to note that all emergencies are sudden and there are ways to ensure that they are not unforeseen. Somalia is one of the most disaster-prone countries. Currently, the world is facing the most threatening public health emergency it has ever witnessed in modern times- COVID-19. Public Health Preparedness involves all levels of response systems, primarily emergency plans and organizational structures, partnerships, communication, and medicines and supplies. Therefore, this paper sought to understand the Public Health Emergency preparedness mechanisms in the country.
The different social, economic, and health background of each country of the world makes public health emergencies and disasters unique. Public health emergencies can often be generally predicted if mechanisms for public health emergency preparedness are properly instituted and followed. These may include plans for disaster prevention, mitigation preparedness, response and recovery; communication; partnerships- including empowering individuals, communities, and public agencies; and healthcare systems improvement.
Abdinasir Omar Ahmed, Atanga Desmond Funwie
This study focused on the main research topic is to identify KNOWLEDGE OF UTERINE RUPTURE AMONG HEALTH WORKERS
Background: Uterine rupture is a serious complication of labor, causing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality around the globe, although much more frequently in low-income countries (2005). Uterine rupture is a rare, but serious childbirth complication that can occur during vaginal birth. It causes a mother’s uterus to tear so her baby slips into her abdomen.
This can cause severe bleeding in the mother and can suffocate the baby.(Erica Cirino on October 9, 2017)This condition affects less than 1 percent of pregnant women.
Methods: This article reviewed the previous paper which published many different journals for getting information about the research title mentioned above and also how did diagnosis and also management and used as secondary sources.
Conclusion: Hospitals should implement best practices for managing the care of high‐risk pregnant women. Operative vaginal delivery may be used to assist women with obstructed labor at the pelvic outlet or low or mid‐cavity. To reduce maternal mortality mother should attend antenatal care to detect any abnormalities during pregnancy.