IQ Research Journal-Open Access-ISSN:2790-4296

Volume 1, Issue 2, February 2022 Edition

Malaria Prevalence among Children 0 To 5 Years in Kumba Baptist Health Centre in 2021.[PDF ]

Yungseh Peter Nshiom || Atanga Desmond Funwie

This survey on the prevalence of malaria was carried out in Kumba involving children from 0-5 years (220 children) from 1th Dec. 2021 to 31th Dec 2021 involving some 1043 households. In Kumba malaria is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in children under 5 years. The overall goal of this study is to sensitize the government, health authorities and the local population about the malaria reality. The results reveal that, out of the 220 children, 159(72.3%) had malaria with the mean (±SD) of platelet counts for the 159 children in the malaria positive group (172.2(±113.8) x103/μl; p<0.00) was significantly lower than that in non-malaria infected group (322.2(±123.9) x103/μl; p< 0.001).

The Factors influencing the Effective Management of Women with Postpartum Haemorrhage in Kumba Baptist Health Centre [PDF ]

Yungseh Peter Nshiom || Atanga Desmond Funwie

Over the years, many theorists have designed different strategies of managing postpartum hemorrhage in diverse hospital settings in the society. But even with these specialized management strategies, postpartum hemorrhage still remains a pressing issues to nurses and midwives especially in many less developed and low income countries. Reasons for this include; little or no equipment necessary for care, poorly trained health personnel, knowledge deficit on the part of some nurses and midwives, including the use of outdated equipment and crude management protocols. As a result, many women die increasing maternal mortality rate, hence, the necessity for this research to develop a well concise knowledge so as to remedy the situation

Challenges Of Chicken Production On Farmers In Mogadishu, Somalia [PDF ]

Mohamed Ibrahim Abdi – Soojeede || Atanga Desmond Funwie

The objective of this study was to discover the main challenges of chicken farm production in Mogadishu, Benadir region, Somalia, The poultry farms have many challenges which limited the profit and production in Africa, particularly in Somalia. So this study has a significant role to the local chicken farmers, future poultry farm investors, and policymakers or governments. Methods: The study design implemented in the study was a cross-sectional design, with a sample size of 72 out of 89 and the data collection was a structured questionnaire and a face-to-face personal interview method.
The data analyzing and interpreting data; by using frequency tables, figures, percentages, and Descriptive statistics using SPSS version 20. Result: the results are categorized into three sections Feeds, diseases and other challenges, each has sub variables that respondents asked concerned about challenges of chicken faced by Somali farmers. Feed: Lack of availability of feeds were Agreed (20.8% strongly agree and 37.5% agree) with an average mean of 3.38 out 5, and SD 1.699, and the respondents strongly agreed that there is a high price of chicken feeds, with (20.8 strongly agree & 20.8% agreed) with mean score 2.33 out 5 and SD 1.289. Disease: Diseases challenges of chicken diseases and health with mean score 2.00 out of 5 and SD 1.007, respondents answered that their occurrence of chicken diseases, were common in chicken farms with 41.7% strongly agreed and 25.0% agreed. And the respondent strongly agreed and agree (41.7% and 22.2% respectively) chicken farmers lack biosecurity measures such as cleaning, and disinfection with a mean score mean of 2.15 out of 5 and SD 1.218. Other challenges: 47.2% of the respondent was agreed and strongly agreed that there lack facilities like electricity and water with a mean score of 2.57 out of 5 and SD 1.432, and Climate change-related issues including drought, water shortages and variation of temperature also exist and 66.6% of respondents accepted (20.8% agree and 45.8% strongly agree) with mean score 2.04 out 5 and SD 1.180. Recommendation: must make collaborate with the community associations, government, and internal agencies to mitigate those challenges faced by the chicken farmers, Government must make financial and emotional supports to the chicken farmers and local traditional chicken backyards to increase their products.

Impaired Renal Function And Associated Risk Factors Amongst Hypertensive And Diabetic Patients In The Bafoussam Health District West Region Of Cameroon [PDF ]

Tumi Humphred Simoben

Renal insufficiency is a medical condition of impaired kidney function in which the kidneys fail to adequately filter metabolic waste products from the blood such as nitrogenous waste and to regulate the fluid, electrolyte, and pH balance of the extracellular fluids. It can occur as an acute or a chronic disorder. Impaired renal function (IRF) is a worldwide problem with adverse outcome of kidney failure, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. Consequently research on assessing the burden of this disease in a developing Country like Cameroon where sustainability of end-stage management cannot be guaranteed, is crucial for the adoption of better prevention strategies.Hence the objectives of this study were to determine the Occurrence and other associated risk factors of impaired renal failure, and to evaluate the knowledge of renal failure amongst hypertensive and diabetics patients in the Bafoussam health district. Impaired renal function was defined base on raised level of serum creatinine. A hospital base Analytical Observational study was done in five randomly selected hospitals of the Bafoussam health district and a total of 134 participants were recruited. Out of the 134 participants 65.7% were females and 34.3% were males.
Majority (54.5%) were of age range 58 to 77 years majority (44.0%) had done a secondary level of education and with regards to occupation majority (29.9%) were famers. Impaired renal function was defined by a high level of serum creatinine. Majority of participants (57.5%) had a high level of serum creatinine and they had a high significant level of exposure to risk factors of impaired renal failure, amongst which alcohol consumption and overweight were the most remarkable (58.2% and 44.8% respectively), also majority (50%) did one or two physical activities daily. Out of 134 participants, 91.0% had poor knowledge of renal failure. In this study, it was realized that there is a high occurrence (57.5%) of impaired renal failure amongst diabetics and hypertensive patients of the Bafoussam health district, thus confirming the hypothesis mindful of the fact we worked with a normal distribution (Z=1.96), they had an overall high significance level of exposure to risk factors of renal failure.

Accessing The Bacteria Contamination Level Of Commercially Available Fried Cassava Flour “Garri” In Some Major Markets Of The Bamenda City, North West Region Of Cameroon [PDF ]

Tumi Humphred S || Ngwaforbin. Ransome S || Che Amslem

Garri is one of the most important food commodities that is being consumed in almost all the ten regions of Cameroon and it cuts across all social standards being the rich or the poor. The consumption of this commodityis more rampant among students in the universities because it is easy to prepare and can be eaten as snack in cold water or boiled water to make a paste or even dry after production.The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteria content of this product and to know if the conditions that are employed during its production and distribution in the markets render the product to some extern not good for consumption without further processing like in boiled water before consumption so as to reduce the bacteria load. Bacteria such as the coliforms, Staphylococcus and Clostridium species were of major interest in this research.
The sample size was estimated at 60 in which 20 samples where gotten from each of the three main markets of the Bamenda city which included, the Bamenda main market Mankon, Ntarinkon main market, and Nkwen main market. The samples were analyzed using microbial culture technique in which the following culture media were used each for a particular purpose, Nutrient agar to check for general bacterial contamination of the Garri, Manitol salt agar (MSA) to isolate colonies on nutrient agar and check for gram positive cocci in the spacemen, Eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) to isolate enterobacteriae.g E. coli, Salmonella shigella agar to isolate Salmonella and Shigella.The Bamenda city was selected for this research base on balloting by number tag and the samples obtain in the above mentioned market in a randomized manner. The garri samples were sucked In sterile water (o.9 Normal saline solution) and the supernatant used in making 10 fold dilution and a dilution of 0.001 was inoculated on the nutrient agar by pour plate method. After 24 hours, colonies were isolated on the NA and a 10 fold dilution conducted again and inoculated on MSA, EMB and SSA respectively and allow for 24hours. After this time, colonies were found growing on the MSA and that could consume the manitolsalt and change the colour of the medium from pink to yellow in 75% of the samples from Mankon main market, 90% of the samples from Ntarinkon main market and 60% that from Nkwen main market. In all the samples obtained, no isolate of coliforms were found.

The Effect Of Risk Management On Project Success In Alburuuj Construction Company In Mogadishu-Somali [PDF ]

Abdiaziz Ahmed Samatar || Atanga Desmond Funwie

Risk management (RM) is a concept which is used in all industries, from IT related business, automobile or pharmaceutical industry, to the construction sector. Each industry has developed their own RM standards, but the general ideas of the concept usually remain the same regardless of the sector. According to the Project Management Institute (PMI, 2004), project risk management is one of the most critical parts of project commissioning. This indicates a strong relationship between managing risks and a project success. While RM is described as the most difficult area within construction management (Winch, 2002; Potts 2008) its application is promoted in all projects in order to avoid negative consequences (Potts, 2008).

Role Of Computed Tomography In The Evaluation Of Renal Masses Mogadishu Somalia [PDF ]

Abdisalam Abdisuldan || Atanga Desmond Funwie

Renal masses are commonly found on abdominal CT scans. It is estimated that 50% of adults older than 50 years have at least one cystic or solid renal mass [O’Connor SD, Pickhardt PJ. Most renal masses are detected incidentally, and their management is controversial. It has a population around 27000 with nearly 60% being in the range 0-18 years.In this study, probability sampling procedure was use particularly simple random sampling was use to select the sample. The study used a population that constitutes 50 staffs from wadajir district specially Banaadir hospital Mogadishu Somalia. the researcher was request the respondents of the questionnaire to respond questions fairly and not to leave unanswered questions, After that the data was collect, organize, summarize, statistically treated and drafted in tables using the excel and manual.
The majority as mother have you child been immunized 80% of the respondents was said yes and 20% of the respondents were said no. The majority of response is there any Somalia national standard diagnosis renal mass 50%said yes while 50% are said no. The highest number of the respondents character pain renal mass 15(30%) were colic pain, 18(36%) respondents were abdominal pain, respondent were loin pain 10(20%) and respondents were all above 7(14%). Most respondents by level of renal mass effect side 34 by (68%) were intrarenal mass, 8 by (16%) were postrenal, 6 by ( 12%) were per renal, and 2 by(4)% were all above Most of respondent investigation renal mass 21 by (42%) were Ultrasonography and 17 by (34%) ware Magnetic resonce imaging while 12 by (24%) ware Computer tomography.
Recommendation: During counseling of patients with a solid or Bosniak 3/4 complex cystic renal mass, physicians must review the most common and serious urologic and non-urologic morbidities of each treatment pathway and the importance of patient age, comorbidities/frailty, and life expectancy.

Protection Of The Construction Environment In Cameroon Through Proper Use Of Plastic Bottles [PDF ]

Zilefac Ebenezer

A substantial growth in the consumption of plastic is observed all over the world in recent years, which has led to huge quantities of plastic-related waste. Recycling of plastic waste to produce new materials like concrete or mortar appears as one of the best solution for disposing of plastic waste, due to its economic and ecological advantages. Several works have been performed or are under way to evaluate the properties of cement-composites containing various types of plastic waste as aggregate, filler or fibre. This paper presents a review on the recycling plastic waste as aggregate in cement mortar and concrete productions. For better presentation, the paper is divided into four different sections along with introduction and conclusion sections. In the first section, types of plastics and types of methods used to prepare plastic aggregate as well as the methods of evaluation of various properties of aggregate and concrete were briefly discussed. In the next two sections, the properties of plastic aggregates and the various fresh and hardened concrete properties of cement mortar and concrete in presence of plastic aggregate are discussed. The fourth section focus on the practical implications of the use of plastic waste in concrete production and future research needs. It is however recommended that bigger and denser plastic pieces be added into the mixture rather than small flakey particles. This would help increase the density of concrete made with plastic waste. Secondly, plastic waste aggregates mixed with fiber should also be introduced into the mixture, to allow the fibers to absorb the water in high plastic percentage mixes. Thirdly, few extra specimens should be produced to be able to allow them to cure for a longer period of around 90 days. This will allow the hydration reaction to endure for a longer period, theoretically increasing the compressive strength. Lastly, the experiment should be carried out with extreme care of the specimens to avoid any damage to the cubes and cylinders, which would allow more accurate results.

Study On Communicable Disease And Method Of Prevention Among Old Age People In Hirshablle, Somalia [PDF ]

Daib Abdi Omar Osman || Atanga Desmond Funwie

This research was carried out “between December 2020 – March 2021” in Beletweyne–Hiran-Somalia. The study of communicable disease design was done in this research to determine and detect the factors contributing old age people and relating risk factors among venerable people of childbearing age old age in Beledweine and jowhar district. The sample size of the respondents was 50.
Results of the study showed that: The sample of this study that selected from the target population were employees of same hospitals in Beledweine and jowhar Somalia and same distributed about 80 questionnaires to the respondents. The study used questionnaire to one primary groups of employees.

Situational Analysis Of Corona Virus Pandemic In The North West Region Of Cameroon [PDF ]

Didier Kheambo

This written article is on the “Situational analysis of Corona Virus Pandemic in the North –West Region of Cameroon”. The North – West Region is one of the Regions that make up the Republic of Cameroon which has 10 Regions. This region hit by a socio-political crisis is not spared from COVID – 19. By the time we are putting up this article, the Region counted 20 confirmed COVID -19 cases out of 176 tests carried out. COVID – 19 is a type of common virus that infects humans typically leading to upper respiratory infections (URI). The viruses are spread through coughing, sneezing, close personal contact, touching an object or surface contaminated with the virus. Droplets transmission occurs when a person is in close contact (1m) with someone who has respiratory symptoms (coughing, sneezing). The characteristics of the diseases are Running nose, Sore throat, Feeling unwell, Cough, Fever, Difficulties in breathing. There is no specific treatment for COVID- 19 right now. The treatment trial is symptomatic. African traditional medicine is been used in the country by ARCHBISHOP SAMUEL KLEDA and others. The Prelate is claiming to have treated more than 500 patients successfully. The government response started immediately after the 1st case was declared in March 2020 and more specifically after the ministerial consultation held on the 17th of March 2020. Immediately the 1st case was announced, the North West Regional delegate of public health Dr. KINGSLEY SOH CHE, set up a screening team control at all the entry points of the region. This unique and salutary measure has greatly contributed to preventing the spread of the disease in the region. The Head of State sent a minimum packet in the Region to combat the pandemic through the governor and these preventive materials were distributed throughout the Region to the population. The packet was made up of hydro alcoholic gel, soap, buckets, and face masks.
This article critically evaluates the situation and found out that the attitude of the northwest population towards the COVID-19 Pandemic is not encouraging. Funeral services are still full of the population with the majority not wearing face masks and those who are trying to wear them are not putting them properly. Many children are still moving around in our markets to sell food and other items. Commercial motorbike riders are still transporting more than 2 persons in their transport means. Additionally, Face mask-wearing is not yet a fashion in all our markets. This article surrounds the overall attitude of the Bamenda population towards COVID-19 and proposes that a complete Cameroon societal transformation through civic education from the primary school level is imperative to prepare the entire society towards the adoption of good attitudes in response to any emergency pandemic. This can only be possible through the review of our school curriculum to meet the challenge. This will make people recognize social responsibility when it comes to public health activities. The focal point to fight COVID-19 in families, local communities, hospitals, the professional associations should be appointed to stimulate the entire population to adhere to COVID-19 preventive measures. The socio-political crisis should be resolved through dialogue involving the conflicting parties. This will reduce promiscuity in various homes in Bamenda town thereby contributing to curb down the COVID – 19 Pandemic.

Invaluable Ways Health Care Administrators / Managers Impact Lives In Low-Income Countries. [PDF ]

Didier Kheambo

Health care administrators are the pillars of all health care organizations. According to a health foundation agency, “successes or failure of health care institutions usually weighs on shoulders of health care administrators or managers” [8]. This article outlined the important role of health care administrators within hospital settings and the impact of their actions on the population being served. Workload of the entire health industry is carried by the health care administrators. They exercise their duties through many ways:
Daily administrative service, Advocacy, Planning, – Organizing, – Leading and controlling, – decision making, Community partnership, Coordination with health insurers and social services etc…
In low income countries, where universal health coverage is rare, they are called to manage poor underprivileged patients who usually arrived the health unit late and also lack finances to pay their bills. With their empathic skills they have to help them go through easily with the help of the social services.

The Various Types Of Maternal Child Health Statistics Use To Display Data In Sohdecam Health Services Cameroon.[PDF ]

Didier Kheambo

According to an International Organization, “Neonatal period is the most vulnerable time for a child survival”. Children face the highest risk of dying in their first month of life at an average global rate of 17 deaths per 1000 live births in 2019. Globally, 2.4 million children died in the 1st month of life in 2019, with approximately 6700 neonatal deaths every day [1]. Cameroon, a country situated in Central Africa is among the countries with the highest maternal mortality level at 782 maternal deaths per 100.000 live births in Sub Sahara Africa. In addition, it has been reported that each day in Cameroon, there are 12 – 13 cases of maternal mortality [2]. In 2018, the under-five mortality rate for Cameroon was 76.1 deaths per 1000 live births [3]. The above statistics showed how alarming is the situation of mother and child health in Cameroon. Maternal and child statistics are therefore important because, through these figures, we can plan to end preventable deaths among all women and children and greatly take important measures to improve their health and well-being. Providing bio-psycho-social care to the mother contributes to her ability to provide in return proper care to the newborn. In this paper, formulas were used to present the statistics applied in SOHDECAM health services followed by a logical explanation to back each statistical activity. Recommendations were given to the management of SOHDECAM to extend the maternal and child health statistics to other aspects like bed turnover rate average, bed turnover interval, the average length of stay, cost of services, the measurement of patient satisfaction to care and efficacy in order to make SOHDECAM statistics more comprehensive. These adjustments will therefore meet global innovations.

Magnitude And Risk Factors Of Roads Traffic Accidents In Cameroon: Role Of Health Care Administrators In Their Prevention.[PDF ]

Didier Kheambo

Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) in public road is any injury crashes occurring when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a motorcycle, a pedestrian or any obstructive object on the highways such as tree, pole, cattle, …leading at times to the death of the injured [15]. This article scans the statistical situation and risks factors associated to RTAs in Cameroon; it concomitantly proposes what can be the scope of actions of health care administrators in preventing their occurrence. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to tackle RTAs, the neglected epidemics in Cameroon. Trend of RTAs, injuries and deaths are worrisome to both the injured, family and community. Statistics in Cameroon present a range of 1000 – 1200 deaths per year. Health care administrators have a major role to play in preventing the uprising of the RTAs in Cameroon. These actions ranging from advocacy, policy initiation, legislation enforcement … Brief, they have a huge role to play in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention.

An Assessment Of The Impacts Of Construction Projects On The Environment In Mogadishu, Somalia.[PDF ]

Mahad Abdullahi Hussein || Atanga Desmond Funwie

Construction sector is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollution in the world. It has massive direct and indirect effects on the environment. The last 10 years Mogadishu city is witnessing widespread construction projects which increase the pressure on the ecosystem, and the natural resource and generate various pollutants. The city is suffering from weak and deteriorating adverse environmental impacts due to lack of strong public institutions and mismanagement, deteriorating economic and political situation, escalating population growth, and lack of awareness of environmental issues. The aim of this research is to assess the environmental impacts due to construction activities in Mogadishu and propose some suggestions in curbing down these adverse impacts. A total of 50 questionnaires were distributed to professionals working in the construction industry. The results revealed that “raw material consumption" was ranked in the 1st position with regard to its adverse effects on the environment while t “air pollution " was ranked in the 2nd position and also the results showed that “Increase in external road traffic due to construction site transport" was ranked in the 3rd position . In order to minimize the above mentioned impacts the government should enhance legislations to attempt curbing the adverse impacts of construction such as enforce institutions to make environmental impact assessment (EIA) in the early stage of the projects. The knowledge and awareness of construction participants with regard to environmental impacts of construction need to be enhanced

A Solution Of Recurrent Floods: A Case Study Hirshabelle Of Somalia.[PDF ]

Mohamed Omar Abdulle || Atanga Desmond Funwie

Flood control refers to all methods used to reduce or prevent the detrimental effects of flood waters (Wikipedia). Some of the common techniques used for flood control are installation of rock berms, rock rip-raps, sandbags, maintaining normal slopes with vegetation or application of soil cements on steeper slopes and construction or expansion of drainage channels. Other methods include levees, dikes, dams, retention or detention basins. After the Katrina Disaster that happened in 2005, some areas prefer not to have levees as flood controls. Communities preferred improvement of drainage structures with detention basins near the sites. (Flood Control and Disaster Management, 2020) This study investigated A Solution of Recurrent Floods in Hirshabelle State of Somalia. The objectives of this study were to identify flood management approaches suitable to the study area, to know the role of the community in the flood prevention, to compare structural and non-structural flood management approaches. To achieve the objectives of this study, data was collected from 109 Flood Management Experts and professionals in Hirshabelle State of Somalia by using Questionnaire through Google forms. For data analysis, researcher employed descriptive research design to test the status of Recurrent floods in Hirshabelle State of Somalia by using SPSS software Version 25. The study founded that The Combination of both structural and non-structural approaches, improves the effectiveness of Flood management. Planting Vegetation to Retain Extra Water, Terracing Hillsides to Slow Flow Downhill, And The Construction of Floodways. Construction of Levees, Dikes, Dams, Reservoirs or Retention Ponds to Hold Extra Water During Times of Flooding, Implementation of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies, The Man-Made Channels to Divert Floodwater or Floodways and Dam Construction Are Suitable Methods That Can Prevent Recurrent Floods in Hirshabelle State of Somalia. The study recommended that Community participation in all level of flood management approaches, Structural measures should have combined with non-structural approaches to reach successfulness, Implementation of Climate Change Adaptation Strategies, Construction of Levees, Dikes, Dams, Reservoirs or Retention Ponds to Hold Extra Water During Times of Flooding.

Study On Factors Contributing Breast Cancer Among Women Of Child Bearing Age, Case Study Beletweyne-Hiran Of Somalia.[PDF ]

Mumin Hussein Ali || Atanga Desmond Funwie

This research was carried out “between December 2020 – March 2021” in Beletweyne–Hiran-Somalia. The study of cross-sectional design was done in this research to determine and detect the factors contributing breast cancer and relating risk factors among women of childbearing age in Beletweyne district. The sample size of the respondents was 50.
Results of the study showed that:
The majority of the respondents 15 (30%) were aged between 36 – 45 years. The highest number of the respondents 34 (68%) were females. More than half of the respondents 29 (58%) were married. 26 (52%) of the respondents were university level. The majority of the respondents 14 (28%) were business men/women. The majority of response 43 (86%) reported that they have never experienced breast cancer. More than half of the respondents 27 (54%) reported that the risk factors of breast cancer are alcohol use, hormone replacement therapy, obesity because of production more estrogen and radiation. The highest number of the respondents 22 (44%) said heredity as the main cause of breast cancer. Nearly all the respondents 44 (88%) reported that breast cancer be prevented. 18 (41%) of the respondents replied limiting alcohol intakes, limiting dietary fats, limiting exposure to pesticides and antibiotics and maintaining a healthy weight as the best methods which is used to prevent breast cancer. More than half of the respondents 26 (52%) said a mass or lump, which may feel as small as a pea, a change in the size, shape, or contour of the breast, a blood-stained or clear fluid discharge from the nipple and redness of the skin on the breast or nipple as the clinical features of breast cancer. 28 (56%) of the respondents reported that breast cancer can be found early. The highest number of the respondents 24 (86%) said history taking & physical examination, biopsy & CT scan as the best diagnoses of breast cancer.
The majority of the respondents 40 (80%) reported that breast cancer cannot be treated. 14 (35%) said Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Hormone therapy, Targeted therapy and Bone-directed therapy as the treatment of breast cancer

The Study Of Immunization Coverage Under Five Years Children In Hir-Shabelle State Of Somalia.[PDF ]

Shueb Mohamed Nur || Atanga Desmond Funwie

In Hir-shabelle state, routine immunization coverage for diphtheria- pertussis and tetanus (DPT), Measles and poliomyelitis (Polio) in Beledweyne and Jowhar Cities for under five children averages 50% been given polio vaccine orally. The most respondent of child has ever been given DPT was (58%), number of the respondent of child measles (56%) was give meals vaccine. In Beledweyne and Jowhar Cities, the coverage rate is even lower at 50.3%. The government of Somali and In Hir-shabelle state with collaboration with EPI partners, has committed to allocate more funds to increase immunization coverage. In the Beledweyne and Jowhar Cities infants’ routine immunization coverage for DPT3, Measles and Polio for children of under five years in Beledweyne and Jowhar Cities are increasing, but rural area are very limit to reach out EPI service due to insecurity and lack of access to UN, Somali Government, Hir-shabelle and LNGOs. There is need therefore to describe demographic (age, sex, level of education, religion) and socio-economic (monthly income, marital status, employment income) characteristics and other risk factors, (mothers’ knowledge and negative attitudes towards immunization, place of delivery, community awareness, role of mass media, distance from the health facility) and analyze their association with immunization coverage. Such information would highlight groups that require targeted intervention to improve coverage.

Stigma And Discrimination Faced By Plhiv In Public And Private Sector Organizations: Evidence From Bombali District.[PDF ]

Sisay Mohammed Mark Barbah || Atanga Desmond Funwie

Since the first index case of HIV in Sierra Leone in 1987, stigma and discrimination has been identified as a key impediment in the national HIV response in the country. Numerous attempts have been made to prevent stigma and discrimination but it still poses as one of the biggest challenges in the national response against HIV in Sierra Leone.
HIV-related stigma remains pervasive and its effects debilitating. Stigma and discrimination deny people living with HIV the right to fully participate in their communities, affecting all aspects of people’s lives, including access to treatment and care, and access to work.There have been Community engagement/outreach services to educate the public on HIV through radio discussions, visits to schools and other institutions, workshops, trainings, symposium, public lecture etc. From the review, the gaps identified in this article are the inadequate popularization of the stigma and discrimination act and inadequate political will to bring to book perpetrators of stigma and discrimination. Little has been done in terms of research into stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV, especially those working in the public and private sectors in Bombali District.
As it was noted, stigma and discrimination can appear as big barriers for HIV/AIDS-infected people, which hinder them from accessing health, medical and care services. The results of this research can inform patients, families and health givers of practical aspects of HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination.
There is inadequate awareness on laws on stigma and discrimination. Too often people, tend to believe that their actions are always right due to limited knowledge on the subject matter. Most people do not know that there are legal implications for their abuses against people living with HIV; be they discrimination, marginalization, stigmatization, gender base violence and similar abuses. HIV positive people are considered inferior in many quarters. Many people are of the belief that HIV positives are promiscuous and therefore should blame themselves for their condition.

The Challenges Of Start-Up Expansions To Different Countries (Case Study – The Expansion of Cameroonian Startups To Central Africa Sub-Region).[PDF ]

Javnyuy Joybert || Atanga D. Funwie, PhD

The objective of this study is to gain a greater understanding of the challenges facing Cameroonian start-ups in international expansion, the case of these Cameroonian startups expanding to Central Africa sub region. While many Western multinational companies and some companies in Asia such as America, Japan and Korea have successfully done so, it appears that only a few multinational Cameroonian companies have done it. For this reason, it is important to investigate the reasons why this is so. Therefore, the study saw the various strategies of international expansion as well as the challenges faced by start-ups in international expansion. Local regulations in the country of focus for imports may also play a role. Possible challenges that result from this investigation include the lack of experience in global business, such as the inadequacy of knowledge regarding regulations and markets abroad, affect the ability of African companies to expand globally. It was concluded that international expansion should be done with caution and numerous feasibility studies as failure may result in a drop in sales of the product in the foreign market.

Factors Contributing To Utilization Of Mental Health Care Service Among Mental Health Patients.[PDF ]

Abdifitah Omar mohamed || Atanga D. Funwie

The main title of this study was focused on factors contributing to utilization of mental Health care service among mental health patients. As stated by the World Health Organization (WHO), most of the African countries who are classified as low-income countries perceive mental health as a challenge to their communities. The specific objectives of this study were (i) To evaluate perception of utilization mental health care services among mental health patients in Somalia (ii) To analyze barriers of utilization mental health care services among mental health patients in Somalia (iii) To describe national health polity of mental health care services among mental health patients in Somalia & (iv) To identify the best practices of mental health system towards health care providers in Somalia.
Methodology: The study design used descriptive and cross-sectional due to this study was not take more than one year after that the type will be mixed quantitative and qualitative. The study population were those who are mental health patients with different types . The primary data collection used was structured questionnaire so that questionnaire filling the patients and also key informant interview filling to the mental health care providers. The sample size was 120 participants among mental health center in Somalia. The sampling techniques was used purposive sampling. The mental health centers includes: Berbera Mental Hospital, Hargeysia Mental Health Hospital, Sahan Voluntary Organization, Nasrullahi Mental Hospital, Mental Health Department Berbera & Habeb Public Mental Health Hospital.
Results: The majority of the respondents 63(52.2%) replied they were seek mental health services when they felt mental problem, the majority of the respondents 88(73.3%) replied they belief mental health was one of the leading causes of death among Somalis, the majority of the respondents 76(63.3%) replied they given enough time to discuss your condition and treatment while the majority of the respondents 65(54.2%) replied they were worrying something that they missed, the majority of respondents 60(50.0%) replied country have a national suicide prevention strategy, the majority of respondents 89(74.2%) were replied someone else close to give them enough information from health and social services about their mental health problems.

The Effects Of Business Incubators On The Growth Of Entrepreneurs In Cameroon.[PDF ]

Javnyuy Joybert || Atanga D. Funwie

The primary purposes of businesses are for profit maximisation and growth. Growth here could be increase in market share, increase in profits or an expansion in size. Due to financial constraints, this growth is difficult without support to these entrepreneurs. Some of the failures in entrepreneurship have been prevalent in countries with limited revenue and this has limited the efforts of entrepreneurs. Such limitations include the construction of facilities, the development of environments, resources (internet, cleaning, training and campaigns) and benefits from government regulation. This study however seeks to investigate the effects of business incubators on the growth of entrepreneurship. Results from previous literature show that incubators play a relevant role in the growth of entrepreneurs.

The Impact of Bootstrapping on Entrepreneurial Growth in a Developing Country(Case of Cameroon).[PDF ]

Javnyuy Joybert || Atanga D. Funwie

Research in entrepreneurial finance generally assumes that growth-oriented ventures lacking internal funds have to attract external finance or alternatively have to keep their growth ambitions in check. An often ignored alternative is that entrepreneurs resort to financial bootstrapping, defined as more or less creative techniques to reduce the need for more external finance. This study seeks to explain the impact of bootstrapping on entrepreneurial growth. Specifically, the study sought to explain clearly what bootstrapping is, to assess the various bootstrapping techniques, and finally to examine the role bootstrapping plays in the growth of entrepreneurs. Findings from literature reveal that, in a situation where the entrepreneur cannot write a business plan to attract external investors, bootstrapping seems to be the only source of finance for the business. Bootstrapping also reduces pressure on entrepreneurs and builds their confidence.

The Role of Social Enterprises in Local and Economic Development in Cameroon.[PDF ]

Javnyuy Joybert || Atanga D. Funwie

Economic Development has become the main consent of most countries in the world. As such, authorities from different countries are utilizing the best tools it takes to achieve such objective. Therefore, this paper tries to examine the Role of Social Enterprises in Local and Economic Development in Cameroon. But however, the role social enterprises purposely depended on a number of infrastructural, financial and other social factors in order for Economic Development to be achieved. Thus, various findings have proven that multiple social, economic and environmental outcomes provide valuable evidence that social enterprises have the potential to make a positive contribution to local development, and through aggregation, regional development.

The Effects Of Working Capital Management On Profitability Of Mineral Water Manufacturing Firms In Heliwaa District Mogadishu-Somalia.[PDF ]

Ibrahim Abdullahi Guhad Hussein || Atanga Desmond Funwie

Background of study Manufacturing division in an economy remains one of the most important Sectors for every economic growth of a country. It develops the economic frame work of countries from simple to more industrious economies. Its productive economic activities are obtained by technology (Amakom, 2012). This takes about growth prospects in the economies.
Problem of statement Vast majority of companies either maintain excessive or inadequate working capital levels both levels are inappropriate. Too much working capital means that a firm ties up capital on unproductive assets thus reducing profit maximization. This further means that the market share of the company is not maximized. However,
Study design The study was be a cross sectional study because; cross sectional study is in depth investigation of an individual, group, institution. Cross sectional study helps the study to describe and explain study single or same entities in depth in order to gain insight into the larger case. This design is appropriate for rich understanding of community study on the effects of working capital management on profitability of mineral water manufacturing firms in Heliwaa-district Mogadishu-Somalia.
Major finings the greatest number of the respondents answered for the firm has a defined level of inventories for raw material 21(40.3%) were said Strong agree, 17(34.7%) were said agree, while 7(14.5%) were said disagree, and 5(10.5%) were said Strong disagree.
The highest numbers of the respondents answered that The firm keeps accurate inventory records, 20(40.5%) were said agree, 12(23.5%) were said Strong agree while 11(22.5%) were said Strong disagree and 7(13.5%) were said disagree

Positive Effects Of Digital Transformation In SMEs In Cameroon.[PDF ]

Javnyuy Joybert || Atanga D. Funwie

Due to globalization, businesses are changing their business models so as to reach more customers and gain a competitive advantage. This cannot be possible without the growing Digital transformation. It is for this reason that this paper sought to investigate the positive effects of digital transformation in Small and Medium size enterprises (SMEs). The primary focus of this paper were to critically examine what digital transformation is all about, to outline the commonly used digital transformation Technologies in SMEs in Cameroon and to find out how digital transformation is creating and capturing value for SMEs and their surrounding environment. This paper however concludes that digital transformation plays are vital role in the growth of SMEs in their attempt to give and capture value to and from customers respectively.

Antobiogram Profile Of Escherichia Coli Isolates From Urine Cultures In Patients That Attended The Dschang District Hospital With Urinary Tract Infections.[PDF ]

Asakizi Augustine Nji

Therapy profile for urinary track Escherichia coli infections in the Dschang community and its environs where the Dschang District Hospital is located, is of major importance since it has helped to obtain medications of choice, deduce appropriate prescriptions and a standard antibiotic profile for Escherichia coli in isolates from urine cultures obtained from patients.
This study was a prospective and analytical study on patients who consulted in the Dschang District Hospital presenting with one or more signs and symptoms of urinary track infections.
Adopting an open ended quantitative approach, we aimed at determining antimicrobial susceptibility profile for Escherichia coli from isolates of urine culture. One hundred and thirteen (113) samples were considered in this study. The study precisely consisted of collection of specimens, identification and isolation of Escherichia coli strains in cultures, and conduction of in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the Disc Diffusion. Technique. A total of 113 culture E. coli strains were isolated using the CLED agar. In the antibiotic susceptibility testing, susceptibility on the 113 E. coli isolates showed that Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin 93%, ofloxacine 92% and levofloxacine 89% ) were highly effective and to a lesser extent to the third generation cephalosporin (Céftriaxone 67% Céfotaxime 65%). High resistance was recorder for amoxicillin(100%), ampicillin (10%), Amoxicilline +A. clavulanique (15%), tetracyclin (64.6%).
Traditional medicine and drug abuse may greatly contribute to drug resistance development in this environment. This study challenges the health body as a whole to implement adequate means of epidemiological surveillance antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial strains isolated in laboratories.

Drug Susceptibility Profile Of Staphylococcus Aureus Strains Isolated From Endo-Cervical Swab Specimens In Saint John The Baptist Catholic Health Centre Ndop.[PDF ]

Asakizi Augustine Nji

Empirical antimicrobial therapy for endo-cervical Staphylococcus aureus infections in the community where Saint John the Baptist Catholic Health Centre Ndop is located, is of major importance since it has helped to obtain medications of choice, deduce appropriate prescriptions and a standard antibiotic profile for Staphylococcus aureus in endo-cervical swab specimens in Ndop area and Njokitunjia Division at large.
This study was a prospective and analytical study on women who consulted in Saint John the Baptist Catholic Health Center Ndop with one or more signs and symptoms of urinogenital (vaginal and or endocervical) infections. Adopting an open ended quantative aproach, we aimed at determining antimicrobial susceptibility profile for Staphylococcus aureus from endocervical swab culture. Fifty eight (58) women who were both in patient and out patient were subjected to this study. The study precisely consisted of collection of endocervical swab specimen, identification and isolation of S. aureus strains in cultures, and conduction of in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the Disc Diffusion Technique.
In this study, it was found that the S. aureus strains showed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin, Gentamicin (91.4%), Augmentin (89.7%), ciprofloxacin (86.2%) and streptomycin (82.7%) which were highly effective against the 58 isolates of S. aureus tested. Percentages of susceptibility were low (below 50%) for ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, and penicillin.
This study challenges the health body as a whole to implement adequate means of epidemiological surveillance antibiotic sensitivity of bacterial strains isolated in laboratories

Prevalence & Risk Factors Influencing Typhoid Fever Occurrence Among Adult In Hodan District.[PDF ]

Salah Ahmed Abuka || Atanga D. Funwie

Typhoid is a disease of public health importance which affects people of all walks of lives in urban, per-urban and rural areas. Water borne diseases, typhoid included kill about five million babies annually and make one sixth of the world population ill. It is estimated that globally about 17 million cases of typhoid fever occur annually causing 600,000 deaths. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 12.5 million persons each year. In Kenya the prevalence of typhoid fever is less than one per cent annually. In Hodan district, Mugadhishu Somalia, it was reported that in 2005 the prevalence rate was at five per cent. The results showed that the prevalence of typhoid was found to be 6.3%. The risk factors which were revealed by the study included low education level, leaking drainage systems, the type of houses used, water pollution and eating food from commercial kiosks among others. The effective water and sanitation interventions in place were connection of piped water in Maina slum for individuals to connect to their houses, provision of health facilities and application of health education to the residents among others. This study concludes that typhoid fever increased by 1.3% in duration of five years from 2005 to 2009. There were 198 (56.6%) who felt that they had suffered yet they had used self diagnosis through experience they had acquired about the disease over the years hence they
could have misdiagnosed themselves. Therefore an understanding of factors that influence the occurrence of typhoid fever In Hodan district, Mugadhishu Somalia was important in the management of the typhoid fever hence the basis of this study.