IQ Research Journal-Open Access-ISSN:2790-4296

What Causes Conflict



Authors: Isse Ahmed Hassan. Paper Title: What Causes Conflict

IQ Research Journal of IQ res. j. (2023)2(2): pp 01-010. Vol. 002, Issue 02, 02-2023, pp. 0042-0052
Received: 20 12, 2022; Accepted: 23 02, 2023; Published: 28 02, 2023


The term conflict management can be conceptualized as the process of reconciliation and compromising between conflicting parts to ensure a mutual agreement is being reached and a
harmonious environment is created. The Somalia conflict is rooted in issues of identity, war culture,
external influences, struggle over power and resources, and a lack of social, economic and political
infrastructure. When approaching the Somali conflict, it is important to take a holistic approach when addressing the root causes of the many issues that Somalia faces. There should be a strong focus on partnership, collaboration and women’s empowerment in order to ensure effectiveness and sustainability. The international community has a strong responsibility for ensuring human security and alleviating the humanitarian crisis in Somalia. When designing a plan for conflict resolution, the foci should be on civic engagement, good governance and communication. 

Unlike many African populations, the overwhelming majority of the Somalis are part of a single, homogeneous ethnic group. All Somalis are Muslim and share the same language and culture. Nevertheless, one of the most terrible civil wars in Africa has been waged in this country for more than two decades. Somalia has been without a functioning central government since the late dictator General Mohamed Siad Barre was ousted in 1991. This article examines the root causes of the Somali conflict and analyses some of the obstacles that have plagued peace efforts for the last fourteen years. Finally, it identifies peace-building strategies that could help establish durable peace in Somalia.

We argue that competition for resources and power, repression by the military regime and the colonial legacy are the background causes of the conflict. Politicized clan identity, the availability of weapons and the presence of a large number of unemployed youths have exacerbated the problem. With regard to the obstacles to peace, we contend that Ethiopia & hostile policy, the absence of major power interest, lack of resources and the warlords; lack of interest in peace are the major factors that continue to haunt the Somali peace process. Finally, we propose ambitious peace- building strategies that attempt to address the key areas of security, political governance, economic development and justice in order to build a durable peace in Somalia.