Duplicate submission is a situation whereby an author submits the same or similar manuscripts to two different journals at the same time either within Academic Journals or any other publisher. This includes the submission of manuscripts derived from the same data in such a manner that there are no substantial differences in the manuscripts. Duplicate submission also includes the submission of the same/similar manuscript in different languages to different journals.
Fabrication and falsification of data
It is unethical to fabricate, manipulate or falsify data in a manuscript. Academic Journals is by COPE guidelines in dealing with suspected cases of data fabrication and falsification.
A manuscript should contain only relevant citations. Inclusion of citations that are not relevant to the work is strongly discouraged. Similarly, irrelevant self-citation to increase one’s citation is unethical.